Immanuel Kant, probably the greatest thinker in the Western tradition, once said eloquently, “Two things fill the mind with ever new and increasing admiration and awe, the more often and steadily we reflect upon them: the starry heavens above me and the moral law within me.” We are always wondering: where all of this (universe) come from and how us become us? 

Nowadays, science has brought us two great understanding about these questions with stunning evidence.

We are so lucky that now we know the answer. Something even Newton and Archimedes did not know definitive answers. The universe started from Big Bang. And evolution by natural selection that makes our ancestors become “human.”

Quite dense and breathtaking right?

The ultimate questions for us as humans are five things: First, where universe (all of this) come from? Second, where life comes from? Three, what makes us human? Four, why nature behave like this and not like that? Five, what is the end of all of this?

The answer to the first question is the universe began from the “primeval atom.” It was proposed by George Lemaitre (Belgian priest and a physicist) and Alexander Friedmann (Russian physicist) in the 1920s. Edwin Hubble, Arno Allan Penzias, and Robert Woodrow Wilson gave empirical shreds of evidence for their theory. This theory is well-known right now, dubbed the Big Bang Theory.

The second question every human being always wonder is about the magic of life. Life is complicated and evokes astonishment. Animals are so diverse, and plants are plenty. Bacteria, fungi, viruses, and all other living are marvelous. Where this all come from? The most accepted answer right now is it all began from a primordial soup struck by accidental lightning in the early Earth billions of years ago. This situation has been simulated by Stanley Miller in his laboratory.

The third question as a human being is a question about ourselves. All living things different, but the human is totally different. So far, we conclude that we are the only living beings who have awareness. We know that we are human. Cat does not know it is a cat. The dog does not become aware it is a dog. Plants and stone moreover. Where this awareness come from? When the ability to think first emerge? When this ability of meta-thinking (thinking about thinking) first developed? The answer that is most widely accepted today is when we began to perform complex social interaction between males and females 40 thousand years ago.

The fourth question is what nature behaves like this and not like that. Why this phenomenon happens in this way and not vice versa? The answer is because of the interaction between energy and entropy. Nature is a perfect balance of two great powers in our universe.

The fifth question as a human being is a question about the fate of our lives and the universe. The answer is two parts: First, in the micro cosmos, after we die, we will end up as food for bacteria—all of the remaining energy that still in our body will be digested and back to mother nature. Second, in the macro cosmos, the universe will expand infinity, without any end. There is no final day for the universe.

What makes these research great? The researchers are extremely creative. They can provide powerful evidences to support their theories. Many other researchers has replicated their study. Those newer results corroborates their finding. So, their theories are getting stronger day by day.